The PROM-guide deals with orientation and preparation for the use of PROMs. Step 3 is about how and when PROMs work and is accompanied by the literature review on the use of PROMs: Current knowledge and scientific evidence for the use of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures; an overview of the ‘mechanisms of action’ or expectations about ‘how it works’.

The PROM-cycle is about the selection and application of PROMs. The Linnean menu is a supplement to the PROM Toolbox, consisting of the PROM-guide and the PROM cycle. The menu aligns to steps 2 and 3 of the PROM cycle (Figure 1, promtoolbox.zorginzicht.nl), the process of selecting PROs and PROMs.

What is the PROM-guide?

The PROM-guide is part of the PROM toolbox and deals with orientation and preparation for the use of PROMs. In terms of sequencing, the PROM-guide therefore comes before the PROM-cycle, which is intended for the selection and application of PROMs in healthcare.

PROM-guide


PROM-guide

  1. What are PROMs?
  2. PROMs: why and what for?
  3. How and when do PROMs work?
    Parties that start working with PROMs would be wise to clarify how they want the PROMs to contribute to the quality of care and quality of life. We provide an overview of the ‘mechanisms of action’ or expectations about ‘how it works’ described in the literature review on the use of PROMs: Current knowledge and scientific evidence for the use of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures. The literature review contains ways in which PROMs can contribute to better individual patient care, internal quality improvement and quality improvement through external quality information (accountability or transparency).
  4. Local, national or international?
  5. Getting started with PROMs
  6. Checklist PROM to go

What is the PROM-cycle?

The  PROM-cycle is part of the PROM toolbox and deals with the selection and application of PROMs in healthcare. In terms of sequencing, the  PROM-cycle  therefore comes after the PROM-guide, which is intended for the orientation and preparation for the use of PROMs.

PROM Cycle

PROM-cycle

  • # Phase 1: Goal
  • Step 1: Estimate goal
  • # Phase 2: Selection
  • Step 2: Select PROs
  • Step 3: Select PROMs
    The Linnean Initiative developed The Linnean ’menu’ of generic PROMs. The menu is advisory in nature and contains a list of outcomes that are relevant to many patients with different conditions (PROs). For each of these PROs some outcome measurement instruments (generic PROMs) are offered in order to help people to select PROs and PROMs and support the use of PROMs in the consulting room and in health care.
  • Step 4: Test the PROM
  • # Phase 3: Indicator
  • Step 5: Define the indicator
  • Step 6: Test the indicator
  • # Phase 4: Use
  • Step 7: Use of the PROM
  • Step 8: Maintenance and evaluation

 

PROM toolbox Glossary

Glossary of terms commonly used in the PROM toolbox.

Implementation

Planned implementation of changes with the aim of ensuring that they are given a structural place in the course of action.

Indicator

An indication of any differences in quality of care. Results of PROMs can be converted into an indicator.

Item bank

A set of questions that all measure the same concept (e.g. depression, fatigue, pain, emotional support, etc.). These questions can be used to measure physical, mental and social aspects of health and well-being.

PREM

Patient-reported experience measure. A questionnaire that measures how the patient experiences healthcare, for instance how the patient communicates with the health care provider.

PRO

Patient-reported outcome. A patient-reported aspect of perceived health. PROs reflect the patient's opinion and assessment of their health.

PROM

Patient-reported outcome measure. A questionnaire that measures PROs and that allows the patient (or their next of kin) to assess their health status.

PROM-guide

Orientation and preparation for measuring patient-reported outcomes with Patient-Reported Outcome Measures.

PROM-cycle

Selection and application of Patient-Reported Outcomes and Measures

PROMIS®

Patient-reported outcomes measurement information system. This is a computer system that uses adaptive testing. This will guide respondents through a set of PROM questions in a faster and smarter way. The aim is to obtain precise measurements of the most relevant PROs with as few questions as possible. Based on the answer to a question (can you get in and out of bed?), the computer determines the next question (is it easy or difficult for you to run 5 km?) PROMIS consists of a dynamic system of item banks and was originally developed in the United States.

The Linnean menu

A supplement to the PROM Toolbox and aligns to steps 2 and 3 of the PROM cycle.

The literature review on the use of PROMs

Current knowledge and scientific evidence for the use of Patient-Reported Outcome Measures. An overview of the ‘mechanisms of action’ or expectations about ‘how it works’ (step 3 PROM-guide).